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If you have done any research into the confusing world of long distance telephone rates, you have discovered that conventional long distance is expensive compared to almost any of the alternatives. This is especially true when you factor in, the extra fees and taxes added on by governments.

Conventional phone companies rely on people being either uninformed or unmotivated to check out the alternatives. Usually they bundle long distance with local services so you are never quite sure how much your long distance service is costing.

For instance, many consumers sign up for a local plan that includes unlimited long distance calling. They usually pay between $50 and $70 for this package. But they could get the same level of service for much less money by staying with a $20-$30/month local package and using a dial around plan that charges only 1.9 cents/minute for calls to the USA and Canada.

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Define USB

April 2, 2020 | Wallpaper | No Comments

USB which stands for Universal Serial Bus is a standard for serial communications between computers and other devices. It was first introduced in 1996 and was jointly promoted by Intel, Phillips, US Robotics and Microsoft. USB was developed so that many different types of devices could be accommodated under a single common interface. Due to this capability, nowadays USB devices are the most popular form of plug and play devices. In short, a plug and play device is an external device which we connect to the computer either for data transfer or to provide additional capabilities to the computer. Normally plug and play devices are used along with additional software which acts as a link between the device and the CPU of the computer. This software is called the driver.

          Many other standards exist for such connections like PS2, but USB devices provide a distinct advantage over other standards mainly due to two significant reasons.

First, the USB standard allows devices to be connected to the computer without needing to restart the computer. For many previous standards, the computer needed to be restarted before the device could be used. Secondly, the USB device takes its power supply directly from the CPU thus eliminating the need for an external power supply cord. This was only possible due to the fact that USB devices typically consume very little power.

    Nowadays USB devices are used for a number of purposes. The most popular adaptation of the USB devices is in the form of USB drives (also called pen-drives). These are basically devices which offer portable data storage facilities. Often these devices are as small as a keychain. With the advent of technology, USB drives can now store as much as 200GB of data and still appear very small.
    Another important use of USB is for webcams which allow us to transmit and store photos and videos directly on our computers. Apart from these uses, USB also allows us to connect audio devices like iPods, microphones and speakers, network between different computers with USB routers and also provides an interface to link our other gadgets like mobile phones and PDAs. With Windows becoming more common it is now simpler to synchronize our gadgets as windows can automatically recognize and install our USB devices.  Another new technology which is making waves is USB 2.0, which provides data transfer speeds of up to 480mbps (Megabytes per second).

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Define Radius Server

April 2, 2020 | Wallpaper | No Comments

Radius, Remote Authentication Dial In User Service is a networking concept which is used to provide access to users to services which require logging in, generally with a username and password. This protocol uses servers to store information in the form of a list of user names or passwords. So, when a user wants to log onto for example, the internet, he enters his user name and password and submits them. The data is sent to the RADIUS server and checked against a list of existing users and their respective passwords. If the username and password entered by the user matches the one on the list, then the user is granted access to the internet.

This protocol is widely used by Internet Service Providers (ISPs) as well as large companies, corporations, educational institutions and other organizations to regulate and manage access to the internet as well as to internal networks. Normally these authentications protocol is carried out by devices like the modem, Digital Subscriber Lines (DSLs) automatically.

The most important functions of the RADIUS server can be summarized as AAA or Authentication, Authorization and Accounting. The first two ‘A’s refer to allowing a user access to a network. If we look in detail at our previous example, we will come to know that a RADIUS server may return any one of three responses to the login request – “Nay” which means that access to the user is denied under all circumstances, “Challenge” which means that the user is asked for additional information before access is granted, and “Yea” which grants to the user, access to the network.

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Define Port Forwarding

April 2, 2020 | Wallpaper | No Comments

Port forwarding, often referred to as .tunnelling. is the forwarding of network ports from one network device to another. This is commonly done using a NAT (network address translation) enabled router or server and another computer within the local network. The main purpose of using port forwarding is to allow hosts outside your local network who doesn.t have their own public IP address access to some services running on machines within your LAN.


Port forwarding is easy to set up on a router since the management interface allows for easy configuration. In some cases this easy configuration feature might be a problem since most routers cannot provide complex customization for port forwarding and other services. In such case a Linux box can do the job. With Linux, port forwarding is configured by adding iptable rules with a DNAT target to the PREROUTING chain and a SNAT target to the POSTROUTING chain. After doing so iptables will use the existent masquerade table to rewrite packages so they will reach the desired host in concordance with the port forwarding rules you provided. This is similar to OSX and BSD, however ipfw is used. In most cases ipfw is already compiled with kernel.


With port forwarding you can use a router to connect to the Internet and also run a web-server or a FTP server on a computer with your LAN. By using port forwarding you can instruct the router to forward all information that comes on a specific net port (such as 80 for the web-server or 21 for the FTP server) to a host within the local network. This means that if an outside host try to make a HTTP request towards the public IP the router has, it will be sent to the machine known to handle such request within the LAN. This is done in a transparent manner, meaning that the network client is not aware of the fact that he is accessing a machine found somewhere in the LAN. Applications of such methods are widely used both in business environments and in small home networks.


With more and more devices in the home needing to be connected to the internet or to each other, the router has become a very popular device worldwide. In such situations port forwarding is used to allow access within the network for applications that require access on a specific port, such as games or multimedia streaming software.eaming softwaR.th port forwarding you can use a router to connect to the Internet and also run a web-server or a FTP server on a computer with your LAN. By using port forwarding you can instruct the router to forward all information that comes on a specific net port (such as 80 for the web-server or 21 for the FTP server) to a host within the local network. This means that if an outside host try to make a HTTP request towards the public IP the router has, it will be sent to the machine known to handle such request within the LAN. This is done in a transparent manner, meaning that the network client is not aware of the fact that he is accessing a machine found somewhere in the LAN.

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Define ODBC

April 2, 2020 | Wallpaper | No Comments

ODBC (Open Data Base Connectivity) is a function library which provides a common API (Application Programming Interface) for ODBC compliant database management systems.
ODBC was developed by the SQL Access Group in 1992.
ODBC operates as an industry-standard “shim” between applications which utilize databases and the databases themselves.
If an application is developed using ODBC, the application will be able to store data in any database management system which is equipped with an ODBC driver.
ODBC drivers are often developed in sub-components:
• An ODBC Driver Manager
• ODBC Drivers

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Define MSDTC

April 2, 2020 | Wallpaper | No Comments

MSDTC, an abbreviation for Microsoft’s Distributed Transaction Coordinator (DTC), is a service component implanted in recently marketed Microsoft Windows systems (operating systems Windows 2000 and after, and Windows NT 4.0 has the MSDTC). Its job is coordinating the various transactions among multiple resource managers, including but not limited to databases, file systems, and message queues.

Installing and Configuring MSDTC on a Windows 2003 Server Cluster
There are two main ways on installing the MSDTC in Windows Server 2003, one of the more widely, if not the most used server system today. Before anything else, the MSDTC resource must be created by enabling the Network DTC access.

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Define Global Catalog

April 2, 2020 | Wallpaper | No Comments

Domains and Forests can also share resources available in active directory. These resources are searched by Global Catalog across domains and forests and this search is transparent to user.

For example, if you make a search for all of the printers in a forest, this search goes to global catalog server for its query and then global catalog returns the results. Without a global catalog server this query needs to go to every domain in the forest of its result.
It is important to have a global catalog on at least one domain controller because many applications use port 3268 for searching. For example, if you do not have any global catalog servers in your network, the Search command on the Start menu of Windows 2000/2003 cannot locate objects in Active Directory.
The global catalog is a domain controller that contains attributes for every object in the Active Directory. By default, only the members of the Schema Admins group have rights to change which attributes stored in the global catalog, according to organization’s requirements.
The global catalog contains:


• The commonly used attributes need in queries, such as a user’s first and last name, and logon name.
• All the information or records which are important to determine the location of any object in the directory.
• A default subset of attributes for each object type.
• All the access related permissions for every object and attribute that is stored in the global catalog. Say, without permission you can’t access or view the objects. If you are searching for an object where you do not have the appropriate permissions to view, the object will not appear in the search results. These access permissions ensure that users can find only objects to which they have been assigned access.


A global catalog server is a domain controller that contains full and writable replica of its domain directory, and a partial, read-only replica of all other domain directory partitions in the forest. Let’s take an example of a user object; by default user objects have lot of attributes such as first name, last name, address, phone number, and many more. The Global Catalog will store only the main attributes of user objects in search

operations like a user’s first name and last name, or login name. This partial attributes of that user object which is stored would be enough to allow a search for that object to be able to locate the full replica of the object in active directory. If a search comes to locate objects, then first it goes to local global catalog and reduces network traffic over the WAN.

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Define Combofix

April 2, 2020 | Wallpaper | No Comments

ComboFix is a spyware infection remover. ComboFix was designed and written specifically to target the following types of infections: SurfSideKick, QooLogic, Look2Me or any combination of that group.
This software also has a built-in engine to target Vundo infections, now it may take care of some of these infections, but not all of them.
Now while it can help and cure some other infections, it doesn’t do that good of a job, as it does with the group listed above, because it was designed to look for the specific traits that are used by those infections.

The software is constantly being updated to provide the latest protection to its users.

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Define Anonymous Surfing

April 2, 2020 | Wallpaper | No Comments

Anonymous surfing is browsing web sites privately.
Anonymous surfing encompasses two different forms of privacy:
• Privacy protection from the web site you are browsing.
• Privacy protection from eavesdroppers who may be watching your network connection.
Why Anonymous Surfing?
There are many reasons why someone would want to do anonymous surfing. People surf anonymously to protect themselves from the government, their employers, or nosy family members.
People in Iran use anonymous surfing to prevent being executed in the streets. People in corporate America use anonymous surfing to avoid sharing the details of their personal lives with their employers. Everyone uses anonymous surfing to protect their privacy from nosy web sites and annoying advertisers.
How does anonymous surfing work?

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Converting FLAC to MP3

April 2, 2020 | Wallpaper | No Comments

Firstly, a FLAC is an abbreviation for “Free Lossless Audio Codec,” which means that the audio is compressed and the size of the file is smaller, but the quality is still the same. On the other hand, an MP3, an abbreviation for MPEG-3, is a lossy audio format that looses a bit of the original audio data. Converting a file from .flac to .mp3 can be an annoying task, but it can be done quite easily in any operating system with the right program.

Converting FLAC to MP3 in Microsoft Windows
Converting any of your audio files from FLAC format to the MP3 format can be done with various free softwares available in the market today. For example, the combination of two free softwares, Winamp and Apple’s iTunes, can be used to convert FLAC files very efficiently.

  1. As we first need to decode the .flac files, open Winamp and click on Options and then Preferences (Shortcut: Control + P)
  2. At the left window, under Plug-ins, select Output. Then choose Nullsoft Disk Writer and click Configure at the bottom.
  3. Then, click the button beside Directory and navigate to a folder where Winamp should output the converted files. Just to make everything all that easier, choose the directory as the same folder as where your .flac files are at.
  4. After your directory is chosen, click Ok and Close without changing any other settings and to exit the Preferences.
  5. Back at Winamps, make sure that you have the Shuffle and the Repeat feature off (or else you will experience an endless loop of conversions) and click File and Open (this can be done by right clicking on any part of the player and selecting Open).
  6. Browse to the folder with your .flac files and select all (Shortcut: Ctrl + A) and click Open.
  7. Now, Winamp will look as if it is playing the selected .flac files (if not, click Play) in mute mode, but it actually is not; it is decoding the .flac files into the .wav files. Usually the process takes a couple tens of seconds with a five minute song, although this is purely dependent on your system’s hardware.
  8. When Winamp is done, make sure that you put your output settings back to DirectSound output.
  9. Now, to encode the .wav files into .mp3 files, you need to first configure iTunes to do it by opening up iTunes and going to Edit and Preferences.

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